MODESTO, Calif. (July 13, 2011) – The addition of almonds to breakfast – long hailed as the most important meal of the day – may help sustain feelings of fullness based on the results of a recent study.
The study, Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial, published in February 2011 in the Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, illustrates that consuming a breakfast containing almonds (a low glycemic index food) aids in stabilizing blood glucose levels for the better part of the day—while also keeping study participants satiated for a longer period of time.
Study at a Glance:
The People: 14 adults with impaired glucose tolerance, average age of 39 years.
The Study: The study was a randomized, 5-arm, crossover trial. Each participant was given either a breakfast of orange juice and farina (Cream of Wheat®) containing 1.5 ounces of a form of almonds (whole almonds, almond butter, almond oil, defatted almond flour) or a control breakfast consisting of orange juice and farina (Cream of Wheat®) with no almonds or almond products. The control and test breakfasts were matched for carbohydrate content. After breakfast, blood glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA), glucagon-like pepetide-1 (GLP-1) and appetite sensations were measured. Four hours later, each participant was given a standard lunch, after which the same measurements were collected.
The study found that the addition of whole almonds to the breakfast meal significantly increased satiety, and decreased blood glucose concentrations throughout the day compared to the control breakfast meal. Almond oil had lesser, but similar, effects on post-meal blood glucose concentrations as whole almonds; but, both whole almonds and almond oil significantly reduced the insulin response after the second meal compared to the control breakfast meal.
About Almond Board of California
Consumers all over the world enjoy California Almonds as a natural, wholesome and quality food product, making almonds California’s leading agricultural export in terms of value. The Almond Board of California promotes almonds through its research-based approach to all aspects of marketing, farming and production on behalf of the more than 6,000 California Almond growers and processors, many of whom are multi-generational family operations. Established in 1950 and based in Modesto, California, the Almond Board of California is a non-profit organization that administers a grower-enacted Federal Marketing Order under the supervision of the United States Department of Agriculture. For more information on the Almond Board of California or almonds, visit AlmondBoard.com.
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Background: Nut consumption may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to measure the acute and second-meal effects of morning almond consumption and determine the contribution of different nut fractions.
Methods: 14 impaired glucose tolerant (IGT) adults participated in a randomized, 5-arm, crossover design study where whole almonds (WA), almond butter (AB), defatted almond flour (AF), almond oil (AO) or no almonds (vehicle - V) were incorporated into a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations of blood glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and appetitive sensations were assessed after treatment breakfasts and a standard lunch.
Results: WA significantly attenuated second-meal and daylong blood glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and provided the greatest daylong feeling of fullness. AB and AO decreased blood glucose AUCI in the morning period and daylong blood glucose iAUC was attenuated with AO. WA and AO elicited a greater secondmeal insulin response, particularly in the early postprandial phase, and concurrently suppressed the second-meal NEFA response. GLP-1 concentrations did not vary significantly between treatments.
Conclusions: Inclusion of almonds in the breakfast meal decreased blood glucose concentrations and increased satiety both acutely and after a second-meal in the 14 adults with IGT who participated in this study. The lipid component of almonds is likely responsible for the immediate post-ingestive response, although it cannot explain the differential second-meal response to AB versus WA and AO.
1 Good news about fat. U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend that the majority of your fat intake be unsaturated. One serving of almonds (28g) has 13 g of fat and only 1 g of saturated fat.